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What is a testicular tumor?

A testicular tumor involves the growth of abnormal cells in the testicles, which are a crucial part of the male reproductive system. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant testicular tumors are relatively rare compared to other types of cancer but are the most common type of cancer in men between the ages of 15 and 35. Early detection and treatment are key to a favorable outcome, as testicular tumors are among the most curable forms of cancer if detected early.


The diagnosis of testicular tumors usually begins with self-examination or detection of changes during a routine medical examination. Symptoms that may suggest a testicular tumor include swelling or changes in the size of one testis, a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum, pain in the testis or lower abdomen, and sometimes the accumulation of fluid in the scrotum. If a tumor is suspected, the next steps may include a testicular ultrasound, which is highly effective in detecting the presence and nature of the tumor, and determining the levels of tumor markers in the blood, which can help identify specific types of testicular tumors.


Treatment for testicular tumors depends on the type and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient’s overall health condition. Treatment methods include:
Surgical intervention: Orchiectomy, the surgical removal of the affected testis, is often the first step in treatment. This is usually done through a small incision in the groin and is often sufficient for the early stages of some types of tumors.
Radiotherapy: May be used to destroy any remaining cancer cells after surgery, especially in tumors that are sensitive to radiation, such as seminomas.
Chemotherapy: Used in cases where there is a risk of cancer spreading or if the cancer has already spread. Chemotherapy can be effective in destroying cancer cells throughout the body.
Regular monitoring and follow-up examinations are crucial after treatment of testicular tumors to monitor for any recurrence of the disease and manage any long-term effects of the treatment. Providing support to patients, including emotional and psychosocial assistance, is also an important part of a comprehensive approach to treating testicular tumors.