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What are kidney and ureter stones?

Kidney and ureter stones, known as nephrolithiasis and ureterolithiasis, refer to the presence of solid crystal deposits in the kidney or ureter. These stones can vary in size and composition, most commonly made of calcium oxalate, phosphate, or urate. A stone can cause severe pain when it moves or blocks the flow of urine, which can lead to serious issues such as infections or kidney damage.


The diagnosis of kidney and ureter stones involves various methods, including ultrasound and CT scanning. Urine analysis can detect traces of blood or infection, as well as characteristics that may indicate the type of stone.


Laser lithotripsy, known as laser stone breaking, is one of the most common methods for treating kidney and ureter stones. This procedure uses a high-energy laser to break the stone into smaller pieces that can naturally pass through the urinary tract. Benefits of this method include high efficiency, the ability to break very hard stones, minimal invasiveness, and quick recovery.
Postoperative care may involve the use of a stent in the ureter to facilitate the flow of urine and help expel stone fragments, as well as taking certain medications to ease pain.
Laser lithotripsy is particularly useful for stones that are too large to pass on their own, located in places where they cannot be naturally expelled, or causing pain and other symptoms. The choice of treatment depends on the size, type, and position of the stone, as well as the overall health condition of the patient.