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Endometriosis is a condition where tissue similar to the lining inside the uterus (endometrium) starts growing outside the uterus, often affecting the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the tissues lining the pelvis. This abnormally growing tissue continues to act as it would inside the uterus—it thickens, breaks down, and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. Since the blood and tissue have nowhere to exit, they can cause inflammation, pain, and the formation of scar tissue.


Diagnosing endometriosis can be challenging because its symptoms often resemble those of other conditions. A gynecological exam can provide initial clues, but additional tests are usually needed for confirmation. Ultrasound, especially transvaginal ultrasound, can help identify ovarian cysts caused by endometriosis (endometriomas). The most reliable way to diagnose endometriosis is through laparoscopy, a minimally invasive surgical procedure that allows the doctor to directly view the inside of the pelvis and take tissue samples (biopsy) for analysis.


Treatment for endometriosis primarily depends on the symptoms and the individual’s reproductive plans. For those with mild symptoms, medication, including anti-inflammatory drugs, may be sufficient to relieve pain. Hormonal therapies are often used to control symptoms, reduce, or stop the growth of endometrial tissue. In cases where medication is not effective, or when endometriosis causes significant symptoms or complications, surgery may be considered. Laparoscopy, a minimally invasive surgical procedure, is commonly used to remove or destroy endometrial lesions, which can significantly improve symptoms and increase the chances of pregnancy in women struggling with infertility related to endometriosis. In extreme cases, when other treatment methods do not provide relief and the patient does not plan on having children, a more radical approach like hysterectomy- which involves removing the uterus and sometimes the ovaries- may be considered.